What is an IPO?

IPO stands for Initial Public Offer. When a public limited company needs money for its own expansion or its shareholders require a market or liquidity for the shares that it holds, the company makes an offer to the public to invest in its shares or debentures. Such an offer is called an I P O.

Things to know before investing in IPO

The quality of management, the stage of the projects in which the company has invested, the exchanges where the instrument will be listed, will there be enough trading, apart from the fundamental strength of the company. You should look at the auditor, the merchant banker, the registrar, the track record of the promoters in their existing listed companies, management philosophy in terms of sharing the rewards with the shareholder, and also see the view that the press has on the said issue.

    What is an IPO rating / grading?

IPO grading is the grade assigned by a Credit Rating Agency registered with SEBI, to the initial public offering (IPO) of equity shares or any other security which may be converted into or exchanged with equity shares at a later date. The grade represents a relative assessment of the fundamentals of that issue in relation to the other listed equity securities in India. Such grading is generally assigned on a five-point point scale with a higher score indicating stronger fundamentals and vice versa as below.

IPO grade 1: Poor fundamentals

IPO grade 2: Below-average fundamentals

IPO grade 3: Average fundamentals

IPO grade 4: Above-average fundamentals

IPO grade 5: Strong fundamentals

IPO grading has been introduced as an endeavor to make additional information available for the investors in order to facilitate their assessment of equity issues offered through an IPO.

 How is the share allotment done?

After the closures of the issue, the bids received are aggregated under different categories i.e., firm allotment, Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIBs), Non-Institutional Buyers (NIBs), Retail, etc. The over subscription ratios are then calculated for each of the categories as against the shares reserved for each of the categories in the offer document. Within each of these categories, the bids are then segregated into different buckets based on the number of shares applied for. The over subscription ratio is then applied to the number of shares applied for and the number of shares to be allotted for applicants in each of the buckets is determined. Then, the number of successful allottees is determined. This process is followed in case of proportionate allotment. In case of allotment for QIBs, it is subject to the discretion of the post issue lead manager.

What about the ones who don’t get any allotment?

If an applicant does not get any allotment, his money is refunded to him as soon as possible. Normally within 30 days of allotment.

What is book building?

Book building is a process of price discovery.  The Red Herring prospectus does not contain a price. Instead, the red herring prospectus contains either the floor price of the securities offered through it or a price band along with the range within which the bids can move. The applicants bid for the shares quoting the price and the quantity that they would like to bid at. Only the retail investors have the option of bidding at ‘cut-off’. After the bidding process is complete, the ‘cut-off’ price is arrived at on the lines of Dutch auction. The basis of Allotment (Refer Q. 15.j) is then finalized and letters allotment/refund is undertaken. The final prospectus with all the details including the final issue price and the issue size is filed with ROC, thus completing the issue process.

What is FPO?

A follow on public offering (FPO) is when an already listed company makes either a fresh issue of securities to the public or an offer for sale to the public, through an offer document. An offer for sale in such scenario is allowed only if it is made to satisfy listing or continuous listing obligations.

What is DRHP?

Red Herring Prospectus is a prospectus, which does not have details of either price or number of shares being offered, or the amount of issue. This means that in case price is not disclosed, the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. On the other hand, an issuer can state the issue size and the number of shares are determined later. An RHP for and FPO can be filed with the RoC without the price band and the issuer, in such a case will notify the floor price or a price band by way of an advertisement one day prior to the opening of the issue.

 

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